The government’s policy is to maintain 60% of the land under forest cover at all times. The present ratio is higher, with a remarkable 72% of the country covered in forests of fir, mixed conifers, temperate and broadleaf species. Bhutan’s forests also has 7000 vascular plants, 360 orchid species, 46 species of rhododendron, and other rare and endemic species, including over 500 species of medicinal plants. Flowers being rare and therefore considered very valuable in the European Alps such as Edelweiss are growing in thousands in Bhutan. It is a true biodiversity haven for nature lovers and specialists that Botanists Floraconsider the whole country as one beautiful park.
Bhutan has been identified as one of the 10 bio-diversity hotspots in the world, harbouring an estimated 770 species of birds which includes the plumage, the Himalayan griffin, the unique high- altitude wader, the ibis bill, the spectacular hornbill, barbets, sunbirds, fulvattas, yuhinas, cuckoos, and many more. The country also has a great variety of endangered species like the black- necked crane, the monal pheasant, peacock pheasant, raven and the Rufous- necked hornbill. Along its southern border, the narrow tropical and subtropical belt supports the Asiatic elephant, greater one-horned rhinoceros, gaur, wild water buffalo, hog deer, tiger, clouded leopard, hornbill, trogon and other mammals and birds characteristic of indomalayan species. Only 150 kilometers to the north, high Himalayan fauna include the blue sheep, takin, musk deer, snow leopard, wolf and other species characteristic of the Palearctic realm. Bhutan is also known for its wintering populations (about 350 birds) of the vulnerable black-necked crane in the valleys of Phobjikha, Bomdeling and Gyetsa.